Tuesday, February 5, 2013

NREMT-EMT Questions-Tips

I am sharing last minute NREMT - EMT  tips & questions for a while for another part of emt studying. These NREMT- EMT practise questions may be helpfull in nremt exam. If you want to check premium paramedic study guide and nremt study guide.

1-) When is aspirin indicated? What are the contraindications?
Aspirin is indicated for suspected chest pain of cardiac origin. Doses depend on protocols but range from 162-324 mg orally (chewed). Aspirin is contraindicated when the patient is allergic to aspirin or is gastrointestinal bleeding suspected.

2-)What are the four colors of the NFPA 704 system? What does each color signify?
Blue , Health hazard
Red, Fire hazard
Yellow, Reactivity
White, Specific hazards

3-)Define prozimal and distal. Provide an example of each.
Proximal is closer to the center of the body or point of attachment to the body. Distal is farther away. These terms are relative.
The elbow is distal to the shoulder because the elbow is farther away from the arm's attachment to the body. The elbow is also proximal to the wrist because the elbow is closer to the arm's attachment to the body.

4-)Explain the difference between the ABC and CAB approach to the primary assessment. When is each used?
ABC remains the approach to the primary assessment for all patients who are not in cardiac arrest. Patients who are responsive, moving or obviously breathing are examples of when the ABC approach is used.
The CAB approach is used in patients who appear to be in cardiac arrest. In the patient who appears unresponsive and without breathing, the EMT will begin with circulation (pulse check for no more than 10 seconds and compressions) in order to more quickly circulate blood and increase chances for survival.

5-) Differentiate between the prefixes hyper- and hypo- .
Hypo- means under or low (e.g. hypoglycemia = low blood sugar)
Hyper- means over or above (e.g. hypertension = high blood pressure)

6-) How might you determine if a patient has carbon monoxide poisoning?
Carbon monoxide is an odorless, tasteless, colorless gas. This poinoning may be difficult to identify. Some clues might be :
- More than one patient displaying signs at the same time. Signs include headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting,weakness and confusion.
-It is heating season (especially early), There has been work on the heating system or the patient is in an enviroment where there may be carbon monoxide (garage or industrial).
-You may also use a CO-oximeter to measure for carbon monoxide in the blood.

7-) You are treating a patient who was involved in a motor vehicle collision. He is showing signs of shock but has no external injuries or deformity noted. Where is the patient bleeding from?
- The patient most likely is bleeding in the chest or abdomen. The organs and large vessels present, if injured, can bleed severely and cause shock. It isn't possible to lose enough blood inside the head to cause shock. Without deformity it is unlikely the pelvis, femurs or other musculoskeletal injuries have caused the blood loss.

8-) Which common Hepatitis virus spread by the oral/fecal route?
- Hepatitis A is spread by the oral-fecal route. Hepatitis B and C are spread by the bloodborne route.

9-) What is the difference between gurgling and snoring airway sounds?
- Gurgling is caused by foreign matter in the airway and indicates a need for suction. Snoring indicates a mechanical obstruction (most commonly the tongue). You should position the airway when snoring is heard.

10-) Describe the following incomplete spinal cord injuries: Brown-Sequard Syndrome, Central Cord Syndrome, Anterior Cord Syndrome
-Brown-Sequard Syndrome is an injury to one side of the spinal cord. The patient will have loss of motor and light touch on the side of the injury and loss pain on the side opposite the injury.
Central Cord Syndrome is caused by injury to center of the spinal cord.  The spinal tracts for the upper extremities run closer to the center of the cord than lower extremities are relatively normal.
Anterior Cord Syndrome is caused by trauma to the anterior spinal cord. This results in loss of motor, temperature and pain sensation below the injury. The patient retains sensation of light touch below the injury (a posterior spinal column function).

11-) Where is the pulse checked prior to CPR in an infant?
- The brachial pulse in the upper arm.

12-) List differences between the pediatric and adult airways.
- The prdiatric patient's airway is smaller- including a smaller mouth and nose. This makes it more easily obstructed. The trachea is softer and more flexible. Infants and Children depend more on their diaphragm to breathe. Infants and newborns breathe through their noses Obstructions of the nose restrict breathing (e.g. secretions). The tongue takes up proportionally more space in the mouth than in adults. Hyperextension of the neck (tilting it back too far) may cause obstruction. Use a towel under the shoulders of infants and young children to maintain an airway position.

13-) What is the medication, dose and route used for treatment of anaphylaxis?
-In adults, epinephrine 0.3 mg is administered. This is the dose in the adult epinephrine auto-injector. In pediatric patients, epinephrine 0.15 mg is administered. This is the dose in the pediatric epinephrine auto-injector. In both cases, the medication is administered intramuscularly (IM) in the lateral high.

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Visit our other nremt study guide posts for more NREMT EMT practise questions and tips. I will keep share more Nremt questions for emt studying. Waiting your comments. More Nremt Emt practise questions NREMT EMT practise questions 1
NREMT EMT practise questions 2 for more.

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